python-dev 库缺失导致安装 matplotlib 出错

表现

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sudo pip install matplotlib

安装 matplotlib 时出现以下错误

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Installing collected packages: subprocess32, cycler, backports.functools-lru-cache, pyparsing, kiwisolver, matplotlib
Running setup.py install for subprocess32 ... error
Complete output from command /usr/bin/python2 -u -c "import setuptools, tokenize;__file__='/tmp/pip-install-azXKeu/subprocess32/setup.py';f=getattr(tokenize, 'open', open)(__file__);code=f.read().replace('\r\n', '\n');f.close();exec(compile(code, __file__, 'exec'))" install --record /tmp/pip-record-5SM9_6/install-record.txt --single-version-externally-managed --compile:
/usr/lib64/python2.7/distutils/dist.py:267: UserWarning: Unknown distribution option: 'python_requires'
warnings.warn(msg)
running install
running build
running build_py
creating build
creating build/lib.linux-x86_64-2.7
copying subprocess32.py -> build/lib.linux-x86_64-2.7
running build_ext
running build_configure
checking for gcc... gcc
checking whether the C compiler works... yes
checking for C compiler default output file name... a.out
checking for suffix of executables...
checking whether we are cross compiling... no
checking for suffix of object files... o
checking whether we are using the GNU C compiler... yes
checking whether gcc accepts -g... yes
checking for gcc option to accept ISO C89... none needed
checking how to run the C preprocessor... gcc -E
checking for grep that handles long lines and -e... /bin/grep
checking for egrep... /bin/grep -E
checking for ANSI C header files... yes
checking for sys/types.h... yes
checking for sys/stat.h... yes
checking for stdlib.h... yes
checking for string.h... yes
checking for memory.h... yes
checking for strings.h... yes
checking for inttypes.h... yes
checking for stdint.h... yes
checking for unistd.h... yes
checking for unistd.h... (cached) yes
checking fcntl.h usability... yes
checking fcntl.h presence... yes
checking for fcntl.h... yes
checking signal.h usability... yes
checking signal.h presence... yes
checking for signal.h... yes
checking sys/cdefs.h usability... yes
checking sys/cdefs.h presence... yes
checking for sys/cdefs.h... yes
checking for sys/types.h... (cached) yes
checking for sys/stat.h... (cached) yes
checking sys/syscall.h usability... yes
checking sys/syscall.h presence... yes
checking for sys/syscall.h... yes
checking for dirent.h that defines DIR... yes
checking for library containing opendir... none required
checking for pipe2... yes
checking for setsid... yes
checking whether dirfd is declared... yes
configure: creating ./config.status
config.status: creating _posixsubprocess_config.h
building '_posixsubprocess32' extension
creating build/temp.linux-x86_64-2.7
gcc -pthread -fno-strict-aliasing -O2 -g -pipe -Wall -Wp,-D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -fexceptions -fstack-protector-strong --param=ssp-buffer-size=4 -grecord-gcc-switches -m64 -mtune=generic -D_GNU_SOURCE -fPIC -fwrapv -DNDEBUG -O2 -g -pipe -Wall -Wp,-D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -fexceptions -fstack-protector-strong --param=ssp-buffer-size=4 -grecord-gcc-switches -m64 -mtune=generic -D_GNU_SOURCE -fPIC -fwrapv -fPIC -I/usr/include/python2.7 -c _posixsubprocess.c -o build/temp.linux-x86_64-2.7/_posixsubprocess.o
_posixsubprocess.c:16:20: fatal error: Python.h: No such file or directory
#include "Python.h"
^
compilation terminated.
error: command 'gcc' failed with exit status 1

原因

无法找到 python 库,#include "Python.h" 出错

解决

  • 使用 apt (Ubuntu, Debian…) 安装

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    sudo apt-get install python-dev   # for python2.x installs
    sudo apt-get install python3-dev # for python3.x installs
  • 使用 yum (CentOS, RHEL…) 安装

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    sudo yum install python-devel   # for python2.x installs
    sudo yum install python34-devel # for python3.4 installs
  • 使用 dnf (Fedora…) 安装

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    sudo dnf install python2-devel  # for python2.x installs
    sudo dnf install python3-devel # for python3.x installs
  • 使用 zypper (openSUSE…) 安装

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    sudo zypper in python-devel   # for python2.x installs
    sudo zypper in python3-devel # for python3.x installs
  • 使用 apk (Alpine…) 安装

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    sudo apk add python2-dev  # for python2.x installs
    sudo apk add python3-dev # for python3.x installs
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